An online self-administered pre-tested questionnaire was formulated based on the literature (see Table 1) (Wang et al., 2020), (Cao et al., 2020)⁠. It consists of the following parts: the demographic data of the respondents, physical symptoms in the last 14 days, knowledge and beliefs about the pandemic, compliance with the precautionary measures of COVID-19, and anxiety levels of the participants. Anxiety level was assessed using Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). BAI is a self-reporting measure of anxiety and it consists of 21 items (Score of 0–21 = low anxiety; Score of 22–35 = moderate anxiety; Score of 36 and above = potentially concerning level of anxiety). It describes the psychological, emotional, and cognitive symptoms of anxiety in four aspects: subjective (e.g. “unable to relax”), neurophysiologic (e.g. “numbness or tingling”), panic-related (e.g. “fear of losing control”), and autonomic (e.g. “feeling hot”) (Grant, 2011). The scale has a high internal consistency (α = 0.92), regarding the validity of BAI, it was moderately correlated with the revised Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (0.51) and mildly correlated with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (0.25) (Beck et al., 1988).

Shows the need for further information regarding COVID-19 and the aspects of information required and their association with anxiety (N = 478).

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