Total protein was extracted with RIPA buffer according to standard protocols. Protein concentration was measured with a BCA protein assay kit (Thermo, Waltham, MA, USA). Proteins were electrophoretically separated on 10% SDS-PAGE gels and transferred onto polyvinylidene difluoride membranes. After blocking, membranes were incubated with primary antibody against COMP (Abcam, USA) or GAPDH (Proteintech, Chicago, IL, USA) at 4 °C overnight. Membranes were washed three times with TBST, incubated with the goat anti-rabbit antibody, and target protein bands were detected with an enhanced chemiluminescence kit (Beyotime, Shanghai, China).

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