TGF-β and SC-79 were obtained from Beyotime Co (Shanghai, China). Z-FL-COCHO (ZFL) was purchased from Calbiochem Co. (Darmstadt, Germany). Anti-E-cadherin (#5023), anti-ZO-1 (#13663), anti-Claudin 1 (#13995), anti-AKT (#4685), anti-p-AKT (#4060), anti-PI3k (#4249), anti-p-PI3k (#17366), anti-mTOR (#2972), anti-p-mTOR (#2971), and anti-β-actin (#4970) antibodies were purchased from Cell Signaling Technology (Danvers, MA, USA). Anti-CTSS (ab134157), anti-N-cadherin (ab18203), anti-occludin (ab216327) antibodies were purchased from Abcam (Cambridge, MA, USA). For F-actin staining, Phalloidin-iFluor 488 (ab176753) was obtained from Abcam (Cambridge, MA, USA).

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