Preoperative imaging examinations for renal mass mainly included contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) within two weeks before the operation. The R.E.N.A.L nephelometry evaluation, based on the imaging of contrast-enhanced CT, was used for representing anatomical locations of renal mass. The tumor was considered complex renal neoplasm once the R.E.N.A.L score was greater than or equal to 7.

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