Conventional and germ-free Ross PM3 broilers were hatched in the Infectiology of Farm, Model and Wildlife Animals Facility (PFIE, Centre INRAE Val De Loire:; member of the National Infrastructure EMERG’IN) as described by (Guitton et al., 2020). Briefly, Ross PM3 eggs from two French farms were collected, decontaminated with a 1.5% peracetic acid solution (1.5% Divosan Plus VT53, Johnson Diversey, France). Eggs were then incubated, decontaminated a second time as described above and placed in a hatching incubator for production of conventional chicks or an isolator for the production of germ-free animals. Bacteriological controls were performed as described by (Guitton et al., 2020); animals were confirmed to be bacteria-free while conventional chickens developed a microbiota.

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