Systemic Hemodynamics and Pulse Wave Velocity

Arterial pressure waveform was continuously recorded at the left middle finger by Finometer system (Finometer MIDI, Finapres Medical Systems, Amsterdam, Netherlands) during WWI and stored on a computer using a data acquisition system (PowerLab, AD Instrument) at the 1000 Hz of sampling rate. Throughout the WWI, subject was asked to keep the left hand at the heart level: on the side-table out of the bathtub. SV, CO, and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were estimated with a non-invasive blood pressure (BP) measurement device incorporated Modelflow-based hemodynamics measurement software (Finometer Model-2, Finapres Medical Systems, Amsterdam, Netherlands). The validity of the Modelflow method to derive hemodynamic measurements has been established in a variety of conditions (Wesseling et al., 1993; Sugawara et al., 2003). HR, brachial BP, and PWV were measured with a vascular testing device equipped with an electrocardiogram, phonocardiogram, oscillometric extremities cuffs (form PWV/ABI; Colin Medical Technology, Komaki, Japan), and an applanation tonometry sensor unit (TU-100; Colin Medical Technology, Komaki, Japan), as previously described (Kosaki et al., 2015; Sugawara et al., 2016, 2019). Carotid and femoral arterial pressure waveforms were simultaneously recorded by two applanation tonometry sensors incorporating an array of 15 micro-piezoresistive transducers. Briefly, PWV (=arterial path length/pulse transit time) was obtained between the carotid and femoral regions (e.g., aorta) and between the femoral and ankle regions (e.g., leg) as an indirect index of local arterial stiffness. Arterial path lengths were assessed with a straight distance measurement over the surface of the body using a steel measure. The carotid-femoral body surface straight distance multiplied 0.8 was applied for aortic PWV calculation (Van Bortel et al., 2012).

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