Data was analyzed by linear mixed models with maximum likelihood estimation. The independent fixed factor was sleep condition (sleep restriction vs. habitual sleep). Dependent variables were PLV, MCD for N2 peak latency (N2-MCD), and MCD for P2 peak latency (P2-MCD). Since PLV depends on ER%, the analysis of PLV included ER% as a covariate if it improved the model fit (Mouraux and Iannetti, 2008), based on the Akaike Information Criterion. Also, stimulus number (exact occurrence in the stimulus sequence) was included as a covariate to adjust for potential habituation or sensitization. The intercept was allowed to vary randomly in all models (random intercept). Random slope for sleep was added if it improved the model fit. Individual variation was accounted for by including participant as a random factor in the models.

Paired comparisons of sleepiness, sleep latency, response speed and number of hours slept were performed by Student's t-test or by the non-parametric Wilcoxon test, if data were non-normally distributed. Statistical analyzes were performed with IBM SPSS version 21 (IBM, Chicago, Illinois, USA). The significance level was set to 0.05.

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