Immunofluorescence analysis was carried out on the OCT compound embedded in the liver cryosection. Sections were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde (Sinopharm Chemical Reagent Co., Ltd, Shanghai, China) at 4°C for 30 min and then permeabilized with 1% Triton X-100 for 20 min. After three washes with PBS, the slices were blocked with 5% BSA blocking solution and incubated with LC3B (cat. no. 3868) and p21 (cat. no. 2947) antibodies overnight at 4°C; these antibodies were purchased from Cell Signaling Technology (Danvers, MA, USA). The cells were then washed in blocking solution and stained with FITC-conjugated anti-rabbit IgG (Boster Biological Technology, Wuhan, China) for 1 h. Cell nuclei were stained with honchest 33258 dye solution (Beyotime Institute of Biotechnology). Next, samples were examined under a fluorescence microscope (Nikon D-FL-E, Tokyo, Japan). Quantitation of ~300 cells containing fluorescein isothiocyanate FITC‐LC3 and FITC-p21 were analyzed by Image J (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc., Hercules, CA, USA).

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