Data Extraction and Quality Assessment

Collected data included general information (first author, publication year, study design, and region), participants' characteristics (age, sex, and sample size), dosage of aspirin, diagnostic criteria of dementia, MCI or cognitive change, follow-up period, results, and adjusted confounding factors. Two investigators independently extracted data and discussed any post-extraction discrepancies. When agreement could not be reached, a third reviewer was consulted.

Based on the extracted date, the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool (Higgins et al., 2011) was used for RCTs that has five domains: randomization, deviation from intervention, missing data, measurement of outcome, and selective reporting. The nine-item Newcastle-Ottawa scale (Wells et al., 2000) was used for observational/non-randomized studies with domain selection, comparability, and exposure/outcome.

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