Quantification of artemisinin was performed as described previously (Zhang et al., 2009). Leaves from 3 month-old A. annua were collected, dried for 48 h at 50°C and pulverized into powder. 0.1 g dried-leaf powder was used for the ultrasonic extraction with 1 mL methanol for 30 min. Then the mixture was centrifuged at 12, 000 rpm for 5 min. The supernatants were filtered using filters (0.22 μm). The samples were analyzed by the HITACHI 2695 HPLC system coupled with a SANCO ELSD180 detector. The conditions were as follows: mobile phase, water/methanol (20:80, v/v); column, YMC-Pack ODS-A C18; flowrate, 1 ml/min. Artemisinin was set at 5.577 for artemisinin. The artemisinin standard was purchased from Sigma. Three biological repeats were measured for each sample.

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