For IAV infection, cells were washed with PBS and then incubated with viruses at different MOIs (from 0.01 to 1) in infection medium (DMEM, supplemented with 2% FBS, 1% penicillin/streptomycin) at 37 °C in 5% CO2.

For SARS-CoV-2 infection, cells were incubated with SARS-CoV-2 live virus at an MOI of 0.01 in infection medium (DMEM, 1% penicillin/streptomycin) and incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 for 1 h with or without 12 h IAV preinfection (MOI 0.1). Cells were then washed with PBS two times and incubated in culture medium (DMEM, supplemented with 5% FBS and 1% penicillin/streptomycin) at 37 °C in 5% CO2 for 48 h.

For HRV3, HPIV or HRSV infection, cells were washed with PBS and then incubated with the indicated viruses in infection medium (DMEM, supplemented with 3% FBS, 1% penicillin/streptomycin) and incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 for 12 h.

For IFN treatment, recombinant human IFNα2a (Beyotime, P5646) and IFNγ (Beyotime, P5664) were dissolved in 0.1% BSA, diluted in DMEM with 10% FBS, and then incubated with cells for 12 h at the indicated doses.

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