Total leaf or needle surface area (TA, [m2]) for a tree was obtained by multiplying the fresh mass of leaves or needles [kg] with the projected area to fresh mass (PA/FM, [m2 kg−1]) and total area to projected area (TA/PA, [m2 m−2]) ratios. The PA/FM ratio was obtained from the scanned and weighed subset of leaves or needles, and the TA/PA ratio for needles was obtained from the subset that had been scanned and measured for dimensions. In order to calculate projected area from the scanned grayscale images, we applied a constant black-and-white threshold of 200. In order to calculate the total needle surface area from the measurements of needle dimensions, the shape of spruce needles was assumed as parallelepiped (Eq. (9) in [10]), and that of pine needles as semi-fusiform (Eq. (7) in [11]). Because the leaves are flat, the TA/PA ratio for leaves was simply two.

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