In a randomized, counterbalanced, repeated measures design, participants were provided with: (1) chocolate flavored dairy milk recovery beverage (CM) on one occasion, and a (2) orange flavored carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage (CEB) on another occasion. The beverages were prepared by a third-party researcher, and served in opaque bottles, at ∼7°C beverage temperature (Snipe and Costa, 2018a), in 3 equal boluses every 10 min, beginning 60 min after cessation of exercise. It was not possible to match the recovery beverage to taste and texture (e.g., dairy milk versus water-based solutions); however, participants were blinded to all aspects of the recovery beverage until ingestion, whereby distinct flavor and texture was apparent. The volume of the beverage was calculated to provide 1.2 g/kg BM of carbohydrate and 0.4 g/kg BM of protein on CM [energy 2449 (358) kJ, protein 28 (4) g, fat 11 (2) g, and carbohydrate 83 (12) g], and was in accordance with previous recovery research targeting muscle glycogen resynthesis, muscle protein resynthesis, and exercise-induced immunodepression prevention and (or) restoration (Russo et al., 2019). The CEB was matched for volume on the alternate trial [energy 898 (131) kJ, protein 0 (0) g, fat 0 (0) g, and carbohydrate 52 (8) g] and provided 0.76 g/kg BM of carbohydrate and 0.0 g/kg BM of protein. Additional water calculated to provide a total fluid intake of 35 ml/kg BM was provided at equal volume at hourly intervals. Participants were instructed to drink as much as tolerable. Total fluid intake was recorded hourly. The percentage of ingested fluid retained was calculated from the difference between ingested fluid and urine output, as a fraction of total fluid intake (Maughan and Leiper, 1995).

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