Runners were contacted and recruited mainly via social media, websites of the organizers of marathon events, online running communities, personal contacts, and email-lists of runners’ magazines as well as health magazines, including nutrition and lifestyle, trade fairs on sports, and plant-based nutrition and lifestyle. Although it was not our target (main regions intended to be addressed were European countries with German-speaking countries, such as Austria, Germany and Switzerland as core regions), the online-survey was spread across the globe too, by disseminating the information of this study within the international and global runners’ community. Therefore, this additional sample of 75 highly motivated runners from non-European nations provided valuable data by giving numerous accurate and useful answers. In order to avoid an irreversible loss of these valuable data sets, those who met all inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study in order to create a bigger sample size, and thus increase representativity of data provided with the current results. The demographics and characteristics of the participants are presented in Table 1.

Demographics and characteristics of participants displayed by race distance subgroup.

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