Demographic characteristics included sex, age and length of hospital stay (in days). Clinical characteristics consisted of blood pressure, body temperature, symptoms, laboratory tests [leukocyte, lymphocyte, hemoglobin, international normalized ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT)], presenting symptoms, treatment and days in the intensive care unit (ICU).

We classified hypertension according to the 95th percentile method from the standard blood pressure table for children published by the fourth report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (9). Blood pressure tables included the 50th, 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles (with standard deviations) by sex, age, and height. Blood pressure was classified as normal if it was below the 90th percentile; pre-hypertension, if it was between the 90th and 95th percentiles, except in adolescents, in whom pre-hypertension was defined as ≥120/80 mmHg; stage I hypertension, if it was between the 95th and 99th percentile plus 5 mmHg; or stage II hypertension, if it was in the >99th percentile plus 5 mmHg. Stage II hypertension accompanied by clinical symptoms was diagnosed as acute hypertension (10).

Presenting symptoms were classified as non-specific [headache, vomiting, convulsions, Glasgow Coma Scale score (GCS), or Children Coma Scale on admission], or focal deficit (hemiplegia, facial paralysis, dysarthria, aphasia, ataxia, sensory and eye movement).

The following information was extracted from CT or MRI: location of cerebral hemorrhage (lobe, deep brain, brainstem and cerebellum), presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage or intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), presence of herniation syndrome or hydrocephalus, supratentorial or infratentorial (cerebellum and brain stem), and hematoma volume. In addition, cerebrovascular malformations were assessed using MRA, CTA, or DSA. Hematoma volume was calculated using the equation ABC/2, where A = the greatest hemorrhage diameter by CT, B = the diameter at 90 degrees to A, and C = the approximate number of CT slices with hemorrhage multiplied by the slice thickness (11).

We classified sICH cases by etiology based on a recent review (2). The following etiologies were used: cerebrovascular disease, hematologic system disease, infection, tumor, other systemic disease (hypertensive encephalopathy, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome), or unknown cause.

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