The following examinations were performed on a subject at a clinic visit: (a) history taking, office BP measurements, and physical examination; (b) blood and urine investigations; (c) echocardiography; (d) ABPM; and (e) carotid sonography. The etiologies of kidney diseases were divided to two categories: (a) congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and (b) non-congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract (non-CAKUT). CAKUT includes renal hypoplasia, renal dysplasia, unilateral renal agenesis, reflux nephropathy, polycystic kidney disease, horseshoe kidney, duplex kidney, posterior urethral valve, and ureter abnormalities.

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