This study complied with our hospital's scientific principles and research ethics standards. Due to its retrospective nature, our institutional review board waived the requirement for written informed consent. The data used for analysis are listed in the tables of this article and were approved by the Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University.

The participants in this study were recruited from the Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from January 2008 to March 2020. Participants were children between 29 days and 18 years old who experienced pediatric sICH, as defined in World Health Organization standards (8), with or without intraventricular hemorrhage. Additionally, head rapid computed tomography scanning (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) must have been used to distinguish sICH from ischemic stroke. Causes of hemorrhage were determined using MRI, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), computed tomography angiography (CTA) or digital subtraction angiography (DSA); causes could include AVMs, tumors, MoyaMoya disease, aneurysm and cerebral cavernous malformations (2). Exclusion criteria were: history of brain trauma, bleeding limited to the intraventricular or subarachnoid epidural, or diagnosis with venous embolism or arterial ischemic stroke. Cases were identified from a hospital discharge database based on their “International Classification of Disease, 10th revision” (ICD-10-CM) code: primary diagnosis code 85 was used to identify children admitted with sICH.

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