Anthropometric measurements comprised standing height (Holtain stadiometer, Crosswell, Crymych, Pembrokeshire, United Kingdom) and body mass (model TBF 105; Tanita Corporation of America, Inc., Arlington Heights, IL) and were measured to the nearest 0.1 cm and 0.1 kg, respectively. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as the ratio between body mass (kg) and body height squared (m2). Percent body fat (%BF) was assessed using the skinfold method with a Harpenden caliper (Baty International, Burgess Hill, Sussex, United Kingdom). Standardized procedures were followed as per the guidelines of International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK). %BF was predicted from the sum of four skinfolds biceps, triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac), using the Womersley and Durnin equation (Womersley and Durnin, 1973). Participants were then assigned to their BMI age-adjusted percentile groups (i.e., normal weight, overweight, and obese).

Before commending the jump tests, participants completed a general warm-up procedure that included 5 min of running, stretching of lower limbs muscles, and 2 min of jumping exercises. SJ and CMJ heights were assessed using the Optojump photoelectronic cells (Optojump Next, Microgate, Italy) (Glatthorn et al., 2011). Jump heights were determined from the recorded contact and flight time of jumps with a sampling rate of 1 kHz. The SJ began at a 90° knee angle; avoiding downward movement, participants performed a vertical jump by pushing their body upward with the legs. The CMJ began from an upright position, whereby participants made a rapid downward movement to a knee angle of approximately 90°, arms akimbo and simultaneously beginning to push-off, after being instructed to jump as fast and high as possible. Both tests were performed without an arm swing by fixing hands at the level of the pelvis and with knees and ankles extended at take-off and landing. The highest of four jumps was recorded for each test, and a 30 s recovery was given between each jump.

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