Specimens were carefully examined to identify species, and the whole body and copulatory organs of the target species were photographed. Differences in structures of copulatory organs are traditionally used as the most reliable source of qualitative information for spider species delimitation12. Characters that are reported to be informative for Pardosa61 were photographed and measured, with the following modifications: CarLen and CarWid—dorsal length and width of cephalothorax in males and females, PatTib—length of patella + tibia in males and females, CymbLen—length of male palpal tarsus, CymbTip—length of tip of male palpal tarsus, BulbLen and BulbWid—length and width of bulbus in males, ApophLen—length of tegular apophysis for P. riparia males, SeptLen and SeptWid—length and width of septum in females. Males (P. riparia 15 specimens from each population; P. palustris 26 from Finland, 22 from FER) and females (P. riparia 15 specimens from each population; P. palustris 21 from Finland, 22 from FER) were analyzed separately. The measurement scheme can be found in Fig. S4 (SM1) and the measurements in Tables S4 and S5 (SM1). Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was used to analyze variation in the morphological data using RStudio with pcomp command80 and the results were visualized with ggplot2 package81. Each character between two populations was checked for homoscedasticity in R (bartlett.test) and compared with ANCOVA using CarLen as a covariate to control for body size variation following the same rationale as in57. In addition, a t-test with unequal variances was utilized as an additional comparison between measurements. To visualize overlap between measured characters boxplots were produced with the ggplot2 package.

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