Anthropometric measurements comprised standing height (Holtain stadiometer, Crosswell, Crymych, Pembrokeshire, United Kingdom) and body mass (model TBF 105; Tanita Corporation of America, Inc., Arlington Heights, IL) and were measured to the nearest 0.1 cm and 0.1 kg, respectively. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as the ratio between body mass (kg) and body height squared (m2). Percent body fat (%BF) was assessed using the skinfold method with a Harpenden caliper (Baty International, Burgess Hill, Sussex, United Kingdom). Standardized procedures were followed as per the guidelines of International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK). %BF was predicted from the sum of four skinfolds biceps, triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac), using the Womersley and Durnin equation (Womersley and Durnin, 1973). Participants were then assigned to their BMI age-adjusted percentile groups (i.e., normal weight, overweight, and obese).

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