Sociodemographic Characteristics

A range of sociodemographic information was collected. Each participant was asked about the place of residence, asking to report where he/she lived when completing the survey. This information was further recoded into three categories (1 = north, 2 = center, 3 = south and islands). The level of education was assessed by asking, “Which is the highest level of education completed?” (0 = no formal education, 1 = elementary school, 2 = middle school, 3 = high school, 4 = university degree, 5 = Ph.D. or similar). A set of data was downloaded from the Prolific website: age, employment status, country of birth, student status, socioeconomic status, sex, nationality, current country of residence, and first language. Go to https://www.prolific.co/ for the exact wording of each question. In particular, subjective socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status (Adler et al., 2008), which asks respondents to choose a number from 1 to 10 representing where they stand in society, with 1 representing the bottom (those who are worst off) and 10 representing the top (those who are best off).

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