The control valves were obtained from individuals undergoing heart transplantation without evidence of aortic valve disease and with normal aortic valve function determined by echocardiography. Calcified aortic valves were collected from aortic valve replacement surgeries. Tissues were collected consecutively; only tricuspid aortic valves were collected. Patients with endocarditis, congenital heart disease, or rheumatic AS were excluded.

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