Before root canal preparation, the original diameter of each PTU F1 laser marker site was measured and recorded on the silicone rubber template using electron microscopy. After breakage, the broken PTU F1 was restored to the silicone rubber template in accordance with its numbered sequence, and its diameter of different laser marker sites of PTU F1 was measured and recorded again (Figs. (Figs.336).

Measurement at the 6-mm laser marker site.

Measurement at the 15-mm laser marker site.

Measurement at the 9-mm laser marker site.

Measurement at the 12-mm laser marker site.

The breaking location of PTU F1 in root canal was recorded (Fig. (Fig.7).7). The formula for calculating the breaking length of PTU F1 was as follows:

Distribution of location of broken PTU F1 in area away from the apical foramen. Note: “0 to 1.5 mm” refers to the broken PTU F1 located at area 0 to 1.5 mm from the apical foramen of the module, which is equivalent to 80% to 100% of complete root canal preparation. By inference, “1.5 to 3 mm” is equivalent to 60% to 80% of the complete root canal preparation, “3 to 5.5 mm” is equivalent to 40% to 60% of complete root canal preparation, “5.5 to 8 mm” is equivalent to 20% to 40% of complete root canal preparation, “8 to 10 mm” is equivalent to 0% to 20% of complete root canal preparation, respectively.

Breaking length = Original length of needle − Remaining length after breaking.

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