Each participant attended one experimental session during which they received a single oral dose of either 40mg propranolol or a placebo (vitamin D). We selected doses that were in line with previous studies showing clear behavioral and neurophysiological effects of noradrenaline blockade.73,74 On arrival participants gave written informed consent and self-report measures of state and trait anxiety.75 A baseline heart rate and blood pressure measurement was taken using an Omron M7 Intellisense automatic blood pressure monitor. After drug administration, 60 min passed to allow propranolol to reach its peak levels.76 A second round of cardiac measurements were taken at this time, after which participants started the cognitive testing. A third round of cardiac measures was taken at the end of the experimental session, approximately 50 min after the last pre-task measures.

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