The leaves and twigs of S. brevipes were collected at the Popa Mountain National Park (GPS location: 20°55′N 95°15′E), Mandalay Prov., Myanmar, in August 2013. Prof. Yong Dong Kim (Hallym University, Chuncheon, Korea) identified the plant. A voucher specimen (number: Cho S.H. et al. MM408) was deposited in the herbariums of Hallym University (Chuncheon, Korea) and the National Institute of Biological Resources (Incheon, Korea). RAW264.7 cells and HEK293T cells were purchased from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) (Rockville, MD). RPMI1640, DMEM, foetal bovine serum (FBS), phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and penicillin–streptomycin solution were purchased from Hyclone (Logan, UT). Lipopolysaccharide, 3-(4-5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2-5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), DMSO, quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol, TRIzol, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and ranitidine were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO). The cDNA synthesis kit was purchased from Thermo Fisher Scientific (Waltham, MA). Forward and reverse primers for iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-α were synthesized by Bioneer (Seoul, Korea). The kit for the luciferase assay was purchased from Promega (Madison, WI). Luciferase plasmids harbouring NF-κB or AP-1 binding promoter sites were used as reported previously (Yang et al. 2014). Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane was purchased from Merck Millipore (Billerica, MA). Antibodies against c-Jun, c-Fos, p50, p65, lamin A/C, β-actin, IRAK1, IRAK-4 and phospho- and total forms of Src, Syk, p85, IκBα, ERK, JNK, p38, TAK1, MEK1/2, MKK4/7 and MKK3/6 were purchased from Cell Signaling Technology (Beverly, MA) and Santa Cruz Biotechnology (Santa Cruz, CA).

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