The XyG content of the samples has been estimated by measuring VIS absorption at 660 nm on a microplate spectrometer (Epoch , Biotek®). The calibration curve was prepared from a series of tamarind (Tamarindus indica) standards (Megazyme) in a concentration of 1,500, 1,000, 500, 250, 150 and 62.5 parts per million (ppm). Freeze-dried samples of 4% and 24% KOH-extracted polysaccharides have been diluted in water so to obtain a 660 nm peak in the calibration curve range (~8 μg/μl). The diluted samples have been heated at 80°C for 10 minutes. Lugol’s solution (Fisher Scientific) has been diluted 10 times to obtain approximately 20 mM I2 and 60 mM KI solution. Then, 30 μl of each sample has been mixed with 15.1 μl of diluted Lugol’s solution and 151 μl of sodium sulfate solution (1.4 M) as per Kooiman (1957) [70]. Upon incubation for an hour at room temperature, the absorbance has been measured and XyG amounts relative to weight of freeze-dried sample expressed in percent (%). The difference in XyG amounts of 4% and 24% KOH extracts occurring between the transgenic and control samples have been assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc Tukey HSD test using SAS (SAS® Institute) software.

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