Qualitative comparison: Search strategy and eligibility criteria

To address the third and final research aim, we conducted a literature search on Google Scholar, PsycINFO, and Web of Science from the year 2000 up to March 2020 for relevant articles in the English language. Additionally, the reference lists of eligible publications were screened. We considered any article that measured the variables of at least one of the three theoretical models (TPB, HAPA, and TDF) to study healthcare workers’ observed or self-reported hand hygiene behavior. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included in the review as long as they were published and peer-reviewed. We did not assess the quality of the studies nor their risk of bias. The search strategy included the following keywords: hand hygiene, hand hygiene compliance, hand washing, healthcare workers, healthcare professionals, physicians, nurses, theory of planned behavior, TPB, health action process approach, HAPA, theoretical domains framework, TDF, theory, behavioral theory.

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