The study followed a cross-sectional design. Visitors were approached in the hospitals’ lobbies, while patients were approached in their rooms and asked to participate in the survey. The wards for the patient survey were pre-selected to ensure a diverse mix of patients. Units covered a broad range of the medical spectrum except for pediatric and palliative wards. The survey was conducted from December 2017 to November 2019. Subjects were randomly assigned to one questionnaire (TPB, HAPA, or TDF). Participants were asked to complete the survey at the hospital and hand it back to the investigators or to a nurse at the unit.

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