Data were collected by one researcher (YZ) to avoid interobserver error. To assess the intraobserver error, YZ collected 3D landmarks on 12 crania (two crania for each sex and population) three times repeatedly on three different days. The data were then submitted to GPA, Principal Component Analysis and Procrustes MANCOVA. In the scatter plot of the first four PCs, all the repeated data were closely related to each other. In the Procrustes MANCOVA, the group factor (p = 0.96) that comprised the three repeated landmark sets had no significant influence on the shape variables. Therefore, the intraobserver error was considered to be much smaller compared to the sample variability.

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