2.2 Definition of three-dimensional landmarks

For the geometric morphometric analysis, 11 3D landmarks were chosen to capture the shape of the occipital bone components (Fig 1). Both Bookstein type I and type II landmarks were used in this study. Lambda, inion, the intersection of the inferior nuchal line and the external occipital crest, hormion, and asterion are Bookstein type I landmarks as they are intersections between bony sutures or crests. Suprainion, opisthion, occipital postcondylar point, and basion are Bookstein type II landmarks that are local minima and maxima of curves [67,68].

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