The trend and multivariate decomposition analyses were done using Stata version 14. The trend of pre-lacteal feeding practice was examined separately for the periods 2005–2011, 2011–2016, and 2005–2016. The trend of pre-lacteal feeding in each of the selected sociodemographic characteristics of respondents was also analyzed using descriptive analysis.

The multivariate decomposition analysis technique was used to analyze the difference in pre-lacteal feeding practice between two points in time (2005 and 2016). It is widely practiced in public health studies to identify components of a change over time and identify contributing factors for the change [30,31]. The analysis decomposes the differences in pre-lacteal feeding practice over time into two components (the endowment part and coefficient part).

For our study, the 2016 EDHS data was appended to the 2005 EDHS data using the “append” Stata command, and the logit based multivariate decomposition analysis (using mvdcmp STATA command) was used to identify factors that contributed to the decrease in pre-lacteal feeding practice over the last 10 years. Therefore, the observed decrease in pre-lacteal feeding practice was additively decomposed into differences due to endowment/characteristic and differences due to coefficient/effects of the characteristic component.

In doing the decomposition analysis, the Logit or log-odd of pre-lacteal feeding practice is taken as [31]:

In which, the “E” component is the part of the differential due to differences in characteristics while the “C” component refers to the part of the differential attributable due to differences in coefficients or effects of characteristics.

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