Psychopathological syndromes included all psychopathological syndromes (except BPD) such as depression, anxiety, psychoticism etc. If the trials included more than one measure of psychopathological syndromes, we included the most morbid syndrome for this review (for example, psychotic disorders over depression, but depression over anxiety).

Impulsivity covered self-harm, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), suicide attempts and externalizing behaviors

Substance or alcohol abuse included substance abuse or dependence (all substances) or alcohol abuse or dependence.

Functioning included global functioning, occupational functioning and interpersonal functioning.

Quality of life included all measures on quality of life.

Attrition included number of patients lost after randomization in each intervention due to any reason

Adverse events included unfavorable outcomes that occur during or after psychological therapies but not necessarily caused by it. Adverse events are divided into severe adverse events (any event that leads to death, is life-threatening, requires inpatient hospitalization or prolongation of existing hospitalization, results in persistent or significant disability, and any medical even that may have jeopardized the participant’s health or requires intervention to prevent it), and non-serious adverse events (all other adverse events) [8].

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