Patients were eligible if they had a formal diagnosis of BPD according to the Diagnostic of Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), Third Edition (DSM-III) [9], Third Edition Revised (DSM-III-R) [10], Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) [11], Fourth Edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) [12], and Fifth Edition (DSM-5) [1], and also if they presented with BPD features at any level (i.e. any trial that specifically targeted BPD symptoms at a threshold or subthreshold level as an overall aim of the trial).

We included trials involving subsamples of BPD patients providing data on these patients were available separately. We included adolescent participants with BPD or BPD features, with or without any comorbid psychiatric conditions. We excluded trials that focused on mental impairment, organic brain disorder, dementia or other severe neurologic/neurodevelopmental diseases [7].

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