A single coder, blinded to all aspects of the study determined the presence or absence (0/1) of each of the behavioral indicators on the behavioral indicators of infant pain (BIIP), a reliable, valid scale for assessing acute procedural pain in infants.21 Video recordings of study phases were randomized for viewing by the coder; total scores were summed for the 4, 1-minute study phases and described in more detail elsewhere.23 The video coder was trained to achieve interrater reliability on the BIIP above 0.85 (kappa).

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