The research data comprised basic demographic information (sex, age, education, marital status, residence status [living alone or not], education level, and work status), blood lipid levels (glycated hemoglobin [HbA1C], total cholesterol [TC], total triacylglyceride [TG], low-density lipoprotein [LDL], and high-density lipoprotein [HDL]), lifestyle information including personal health behaviors (alcohol consumption, smoking, betel nut consumption, and exercise habits) and dietary characteristics (tea, coffee, vegetarianism, and midnight snacks), drug allergy information, chronic systemic conditions (hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and depression), ocular conditions (cataract, glaucoma, dry eye, retinal detachment, vitreous degeneration, and color blindness) and TCM constitution information. Blood lipid data were classified according to the guideline specified in the release notes of TWB [21] as normal (HbA1C 4.6–6.4, TC < 200 mg/dL, TG < 150 mg/dL, LDL < 100 mg/dL, HDL > 40 mg/dL in men, and > 50 mg/dL in women) or abnormal (HbA1C > 6.4, TC ≥ 200 mg/dL, TG ≥ 150 mg/dL, LDL ≥ 100 mg/dL, HDL ≤ 40 mg/dL in men, and ≥50 mg/dL in women). The diagnosis of systemic and ocular diseases was made by all the participants’ own specialists. The TCM constitution data was based on a survey using a BCQ designed by the research team of TCM constitution and syndrome led by Dr Yi-Chang Su of China Medical University College of Chinese Medicine. The BCQ comprised 44 questions on three constitutions including Yang deficiency, Yin deficiency, and Phlegm stasis. Each question was constructed using appropriate frequency and intensity scale descriptors and scored using a 5-point Likert scale. Some items belonging to these 3 types overlapped with each other. If the total score of a subject satisfied the identification criterion of a constitution, the subject was considered to have that constitution. That is, if a patient scored 31 or more on the 19 Yang deficiency questions, the subject had Yang deficiency; if a patient scored 29.5 or more on the 19 Yin deficiency questions, the subject had Yin deficiency; and if a patient scored 27 or more on the 16 Phlegm stasis questions, the subject had Phlegm stasis. If the patient meets the criteria of more than 2 constitutions, it is called mixed body constitution. The Cronbach's α coefficients and intra-group correlation coefficients (ICC) for Yang deficiency, Yin deficiency, and Phlegm stasis were 0.88 and 0.91,[12,13] 0.85 and 0.91,[14,15] and 0.88 and 0.91,[16] respectively.

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