Statistical analysis and graphics generation were performed using the programming language R. Expression data were preprocessed by background subtraction and subsequent sample normalization. For sample normalization, the 20 panel genes with the lowest coefficient of variation and an expression level of at least 100 in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) dataset were used as housekeepers (AKT1, API5, DNAJC14, EIF2B4, ELA, ERCC3, GLUD1, HDAC3, HMGB1, IFNAR1, MLH1, OAZ1, PUM1, RIPK1, SF3A1, STAT3, TBC1D10B, TLK2, TMUB2, and UBB). The gene expression profile of each sample was scaled by the median expression level of these housekeeping genes. Gene expression data were log2-transformed prior to statistical analysis.

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