Two researchers (Shuxia Ge and Qianqian Xing) will independently assess the quality of the included RCTs in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviewers. This assessment tool includes 7 items: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants and personnel, blinding of outcome assessment, incomplete outcome data, selective reporting, and other bias.[23,24] Each item will be evaluated at 3 levels: low risk, unclear, and high risk. Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) guidelines will be used to assess the risks of non-RCTs.[25] Any disagreements will be resolved via discussion with a third researcher (Anqi Zhang).

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