Elderly patients undergone laparoscopy in our hospital between September 1, 2018 and March 31, 2020 were identified as potential participants. The inclusion criteria for included patients were: elderly patients ≥60 years old; The patients were evaluated by the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) scale[17] before operation, and it was confirmed that the preoperative cognitive function was normal; well-informed and agreed to participate in this study. Exclusion criteria in this present study were: patients who took long-term medications that may affect mental state; patients with mental disorders; patients with language and visual impairments that cannot communicate normally and cannot cooperate with the examination; Patients who refuse to participate in this study.

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