In this study, we examined three HRQOL domains (pain, fatigue, and physical function) using Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System® (PROMIS®) tailored short forms [31]. Pain interference was measured using 11 items selected from the Pain Interference PROMIS item bank v1.0 (Cronbach’s alpha [α] = 0.91), fatigue with 14 items selected from the Fatigue PROMIS item bank v1.0 (α = 0.89), and physical function with 16 items selected from the Physical Function PROMIS item bank v1.0 (α = 0.92). All PROMIS short forms were scored using a T-score metric with a mean of 50 and standard deviation (SD) of 10 and were normalized to the general US population, meaning that a score of 50 represents the average US adult’s experience of the HRQOL domain of interest [32]. For pain and fatigue, higher scores represent greater symptom burden. For physical functioning, higher scores represent better functioning.

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