Timed-pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were purchased from Charles River laboratories and were injected via an intra-amniotic approach at embryonic day 20 with 1 µg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (Sigma-Aldrich; O111:B4) or normal saline (NS) after a laparotomy under general anesthesia with isoflurane. Following natural delivery, pups were placed in normoxia (RA) or in a hyperoxia chamber with 85% oxygen (O2). Continuous hyperoxia was maintained for 2 weeks during which time the dams were rotated every 24–48 h. Pups were then euthanized at 2 weeks of age for 2-week analyses or allowed to grow in room air for 6 weeks for 2-month analyses. All animals used in the study and experimental protocols were approved by the Nemours Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee and followed guideline set forth in the National Institutes of Health’s Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.

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