A cross-sectional study was carried out using the online internet polling service. The Israeli sample used the i-panel source, the largest panel survey in Israel, with more than 100,000 participants; the i-panel matched the population in Israel [18]. The i-panel adheres to the high-quality research code of the European Society for Opinion and Marketing Research (ESOMAR). The Italian sample used the CINT source. This is one of the largest panel surveys in Italy; the target area was Lombardy and quotas were used to match the composition of the local population. The Italian CINT adheres to the ESOMAR research code and was managed by an ASTRARICERCHE research company located in Milan. During the data collection, both Israel and Italy were in the end stage of the quarantine and had reopened local businesses with social distancing guidelines. Internet surveys such as i-panel and the CINT panel allowed the researchers to quickly collect data [19] while capturing similar end-stage quarantine circumstances in Israel and Italy. Brandon et al. reported that participants recruited to studies by internet panels generate data as valid as those provided by traditionally recruited participants [20].

The sample included adult participants from Israel and the Lombardy region in Italy. We used the G*Power program to calculate sample size for linear multiple regression [21], and considered a small effect size of 0.02, α = 0.05, and a power of 80%. Thus, the sample comprised 550 participants from each country. The final Israeli sample comprised 510 participants and the Italian sample comprised 505 participants (with 7.2% and 8.1% withdrawal, respectively). The questionnaire was distributed randomly via e-mail or a mobile phone application. The study used quota sampling to ensure the representative variables of gender, age, and SED status [22]. The study was conducted for one week beginning from May 7, 2020, two months after both countries were placed under lockdown.

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