The DCNN used in this study belongs to the supervised learning method. CAS is the most commonly used clinical staging index of TAO, whose assessment includes 7 clinical manifestations: spontaneous retrobulbar pain, pain on attempted upward or downward gaze, redness of eyelids, redness of conjunctiva, swelling of caruncle or plica, swelling of eyelids and swelling of eyelids. We used CAS to annotate the activity stage of orbital MRI [5]. Patients with CAS ≥3/7 were annotated as active phase, while patients with CAS< 3/7 were annotated as inactive phase. In this study, the activity of TAO was assessed based on CAS score by two ophthalmologists with more than 5-year experience in orbital diseases (Xuefei Song and Lunhao Li). Disagreement, if any, was resolved by a senior chief physician (Huifang Zhou) after an empirical evaluation of orbital MRI. After annotation, there were 50 MRI images of active phase and 110 MRI of inactive phase.

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