Serum was obtained from left-over specimens of pre-operative BCA patients and normal females who came for health checks for determination of PN concentrations. Cancer tissues from BCA patients were taken from the remaining tissue after pathological examination. Serum and tissues and clinical information collections were performed by Prof. Pornchai O-charoenrat, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, under agreement of Siriraj Institutional Review Board No. Si519/2010.

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