Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) was measured by using the German version of Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP, 49 items) [13, 15]. For international comparability, the four German-specific questions were excluded. Patients were asked about the frequencies of complains during the last month.

A total of 49 OHRQoL-factors were rated on a scale of 0–4 (0 = “never”, 1 = “rarely”, 2 = “occasionally”, 3 = “often”, 4 = “very often”). There was no weighting of each single factor [15, 31]. The OHIP summary score was calculated as the sum of the 49 sub-scores (range 0–212) and characterized impairment. A higher OHIP score indicates a poorer OHRQoL. If more than five questions in total, two questions in a subgroup, or one of the three questions on problems specific to patients with prostheses were not answered, the patient was excluded. For all other cases, a statistical estimate gained via multiple imputation was used to supplement missing responses.

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