PEF-treatment of freshly harvested biomass took place in a custom-made continuous flow treatment chamber with a 4 mm distance between the electrodes. The apparatus was identical with previous works. The generator was described in [56] and photos of the chamber and electrodes are available in [65]. In brief, the pulse parameters were set to duration of Δt = 1 μs, electric field intensity of 4 MV·m−1 and repetition rate of 3 Hz with a constant flow microalgae rate in the treatment chamber equal to 0.1 mL·s−1. These parameters correspond to an energy input of 150 kJ·L−1 or 1.5 MJ·kg−1DW, treatment, conditions that are demonstrably effective to S. almeriensis and to other microalgae based on our previous works [15, 56]. Further details on the estimation of the energy input can be found in [45].

The conductivity value of the microalgae suspension before and after PEF-treatment was measured with a conductivity meter (WTW, cond 3310), without automatic temperature compensation. The conductivity values were normalized to 20 °C using the Eq. (1), where σ stands for the conductivity, T for the measured temperature and α20 the temperature compensation coefficient at 20 °C which is equal to 2.38% per degree of centigrade [15].

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