Two researchers independently appraised the cited studies’ quality in line with the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines; items in seven aspects with low, high, or unclear risk of bias were assessed.

Data extraction was carried out critically and independently by two researchers, disputes were solved by the third researcher, the following items were extracted from the included articles: name of the first author, publication year, experiment design, sample size and characteristics, interventions, follow-up time, blood loose (ml), operation time (min), treatment outcome, complications, reoperation rate, and others.

Note: The content above has been extracted from a research article, so it may not display correctly.



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