We hypothesized that the guidelines use is associated with demographic characteristics, attitudes, and knowledge. All included data were analyzed using SPSS [version 17.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA)]. Categorical variables from survey items were described using frequencies and percentages. Continuous variables were described as median with interquartile range (IQR 25–75% percentile) or mean with standard deviation (SD) as appropriate. We used Chi-squared test to explore if there were differences in the barriers to guideline implementation based on the different grade of hospitals.

Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out using logistic regression. The dependent variable was the self-reported guideline adherence, and the independent variables were region, hospital grade, years of practice, professional title, EBM education in work unit, education background, EBM education in college, participation in guideline development, acknowledgment of guideline for clinical practice, knowledge score, and professional practice area. Factors of P < 0.1 in the univariate analysis were included into the multivariate analysis to identify the independent determinants of guideline adherence. The associations are reported as adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Two-sided P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.

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