The statistical analyses were performed with SigmaPlot 11.0 software (Systat Software, San Jose, USA).

Root mean square (RMS) differences were used to assess reproducibility from the two pre-training data sets (4 weeks and just before the beginning of training) on regression curves. Intraclass correlation (ICC) was calculated for muscle volume comparison from both measurement sets.

Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (Holm–Sidak multiple comparisons post hoc testing) with distance (every 25% of the relative length of the muscle) and age (between group young vs. old) factors, was used to determine differences on the mean value of ACSA in the atrophy in individual muscles. Similarly, the effect of training on the mean value of ACSA within group (pre vs. post) every 25% of the relative length of the muscle was analyzed using the same two-way ANOVA.

After testing the normality distribution using a Shapiro-Wilk test, the comparison of the volume between pre and post-test, was tested by a Paired t-test. Values were considered significant at an alpha level of P < 0.05. The effect of training between the three different groups and between quadriceps and TS muscles within the same group (Y55, O55, O80) were analyzed using two-way ANOVA, with Holm–Sidak multiple comparisons post hoc testing. Data are presented as means ± SD.

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