In this study, the main points of interest were total blood loss, surgery time, and the evidence of intraoperative and postoperative complications.

The total blood loss was defined as the total blood loss during the surgery, which was evaluated during the surgery. It was measured by counting all sponges and tapes and weighing them accurately by standard measurement, measuring the amount of blood collected in cell salvage and intraoperative suction drainage and subtracting the fluids irrigated during surgery, including the irrigation in the surgical field. The clinical significance was the fact that this index can be used to evaluate the extent of surgical trauma.

The surgery time was defined as the duration of the whole surgery, which was evaluated from the beginning of the operation, being the given time of incision, to closure of skin, at the end of the operation. This index can be used to evaluate the degree of difficulty of the operation.

In this study, the intraoperative and postoperative complications were defined as the adverse reactions that occurred during and after surgery, such as seizure, thromboembolic events, infection, kidney failure, arterial occlusion, or gastrointestinal dysfunction. This index can be used to evaluate the complications of the operation.

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