We considered first incident cancer diagnoses as the outcomes of interest. We identified outcomes using ICD-10 codes in the SIDIAP database and ICD-9 codes in the CMBD from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2018. We mapped ICD-9 diagnosis codes to ICD-10 using available conversion codes (eCIEMaps v3.1.9) which are provided in Additional file 1: Table S1. We used the following cancer types as outcomes: head and neck; esophagus; stomach; colorectal; liver; gallbladder and biliary tract; pancreas; larynx; trachea, bronchus, and lung; bone and articular cartilage; malignant melanoma of skin; breast (which we categorized into pre- and post-menopausal due to well-established evidence indicating different BMI relations) [17]; cervix uteri; corpus uteri; ovary; prostate; testis; kidney; bladder; brain and central nervous system (CNS); thyroid; Hodgkin lymphoma; non-Hodgkin lymphoma; multiple myeloma; and leukemia. All cancer diagnoses in the SIDIAP including the CMBD have been previously validated [18].

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